Our Lines of Apostolic Succession
“Have you an Apostolic Succession? Unfold the line of your Bishops.”
Apostolic Succession is the transmission of the spiritual gifts entrusted by Jesus the Christ to his original students (later called apostles) by the laying on of hands. These spiritual gifts have since been passed on throughout history by the act of consecration, the direct laying-on-of-hands, in an unbroken line from the apostles to their successors, bishop to bishop down to the present day. Bishops are said to hold the "fullness" of these gifts. They share their commission in the name of the Christ with priests in their charge for the purpose of serving the community of the faithful and making the sacraments more readily available to the people of GOD Most High. These spiritual gifts insure and preserve the sacred life of the various branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic Church's sacramental nature. The word Catholic means "universal" and is an adjective meaning our church is universal. The use of the word "catholic" in the phrase One Holy Catholic Apostolic Church, does not refer to the Roman Catholic Church, but to the one larger "church" that is universal and apostolic.
We have undisputed lines of succession among our lines, so the Vatican cannot deny the validity of our Apostolic Succession, although of course Rome does not recognize our church nor the many other churches that have broken off from them over the centuries. Some ancient churches including some listed below, were never even joined to the Roman Catholic Church in the first place. Rome broke away from the rest of ancient Christianity with "the Great Schism" when it declared itself "primo" by naming the Bishop of Rome "the Pope" and declared him the only Vicar of Christ. Many devout Christian Bishops also Catholic in the sense of "universal" at the time whose Apostolic lineages were older than Rome's, such as Antioch, Jerusalem and Constantinople (the birthplace and cradle of Christianity) did not recognize the Bishop of Rome as the supreme head of Christianity. They never will. Those churches had their own lines of succession that didn't go thru the Roman Popes at all.
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Below is a statement from the Vatican regarding their relationship to other Churches like ours that have Apostolic Succession.
17. Therefore, there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists
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During and after the Second World War, one of our successor-bishops, Mar Georgius I (Hugh George de Willmott Newman who connects to us thru Maxey to Wadle to Spruit in the lines below), Patriarch of Glastonbury and Catholicos of the West began unifying the various strands of Old Catholics and independent Catholics. By 1956, through sub conditione consecrations, he had accumulated all sixteen lines of Apostolic succession known to exist:
Valid Holy Orders
In addition to Roman and Old Catholic lines of apostolic succession listed below, we also inherit the lines of the:
The Roman ~ Old Catholic Succession (See of Utrecht)
1 St. Peter (32-67)
In 1655, Antonio Barberini, nephew of Urban VIII, was consecrated to the Episcopate under authority of the Bishop of Rome, by Bishops Scanarello, Bottini and Govotti. He was Archbishop of Remes 1657 until his death in 1671, and was made a Cardinal. It is from Bishop Barberini that the Roman lineage from Peter branches off from the Bishops of Rome.
238 Antonio Barberini, (the younger), Roman Catholic Bishop of Frascati, 1655, who on 11 November, 1668, consecrated:
239 Charles-Maurice Le Tellier, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Reims, confessor to King Louis XIV of France, and a Jesuit Provincal, who on 21 September, 1670, by order of Pope Clement X consecrated his bosom friend fifteen years his senior:
240 Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, famed orator "the Eagle of Meaux", tutor to the Grand Dauphin, was consecrated Bishop of Condom 21 September 1670 at Pontoise, Church of the Cordeliers, by Charles Maurice Le Tellier, Titular Archbishop of Nazianzus and Coadjutor Archbishop of Reims, assisted by Armand de Monchy d`Hocquincourt, Bishop of Verdun, and Gabriel de Roquette, Bishop of Autun. Pope Clement X transferred him to the See of Meaux in 1671. Bossuet was a Roman Catholic predecessor of the future Old Catholic Church because he taught that the Roman Pontiff could err temporarily, but not fall into permanent error. He, in turn, with a mandate from Pope Clement X, in the church of Chartreuse, Paris, as Bishop of Meaux on 24 October, 1693, consecrated:
241 Jacques Goyon de Matigon, son of Count De Thorigny, was consecrated 16 April 1673 at Paris, Church of the Carthusians, by Jacques Bénigne Bossuet, Bishop emeritus of Condom, assisted by Gui de Sève de Rochechouart, Bishop of Arras, and Louis Marie Armand de Simiane de Gorde, Bishop of Langres. He was Doyen of Lisieux and Abbe Commendataire De St. Victor, Paris. By order of Pope Clement XI, on 18 February, 1719 in Paris, consecrated:
242 Dominicus Marie Varlet (alt spelling: Dominique-Marie Varlet), was consecrated Roman Catholic Bishop of Ascalon in partibus, and coadjutor to the Most Reverend Pidou of St. Odon, Bishop of Babylon, Persia (Baghdad) in February 1719 at Paris, in the lower chapel of the Seminary of the Missions Étrangères, by Jacques de Goyon de Matignon, Bishop emeritus of Condom, assisted by Louis François Duplessis de Mornay, O.F.M., Titular Bishop of Eumenia, (aka Bishop of Quebec) and Jean Baptiste Massillon, Bishop of Clermont. Bishop Varlet consecrated four Archbishops of the Old Catholics at Utrecht (Oud Katholicke Kerk van Nederland), three of whom died without consecrating successors. Varlet was named Coadjutor to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Babylon who died on November 20, 1717 and Bishop Varlet succeeded to the title. After a period in Persia at Schamake, he was suspended from office for alleged technical irregularities, including the conformation of 604 candidates in Holland, whom he had confirmed at the request of the Church in Amsterdam. The Dutch Church had been without a Bishop for 18 years as a punishment from Rome because the Dutch Church refused to cooperate in the persecution of the Jansenists in Holland. Following the election of Cornelius Van Steenhoven to serve as Archbishop of Utrecht, the Primatial See of Holland, Varlet agreed to perform the Consecration, which he did on October 15, 1724, thus making Van Steenhoven the seventh Archbishop of Utrecht and canonical successor to Saint Willibrod, the British missionary who had brought the faith to Holland. In this consecration was born the Old Catholic Church. In response to the appeals of the Chapter of the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht, Varlet, on 17 October, 1739 consecrated:
243 Petrus Johannes Meindaerts, was consecrated Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht in 1739. One of several priests ordained in Ireland by Luke Fagan, Bishop of Meath, afterwards Archbishop of Dublin, with the view of sustaining the independence of the ancient Church of the Netherlands, founded by St. Willibrod in the VII Century. By his consecration to the Episcopate, the succession of the Old Catholic Church in Holland has been perpetuated. On 11 July, 1745, Bishop Meindaerts consecrated:
244 Johannes Van Stiphout, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem, who on 7 February, 1768, consecrated:
245 Gualterus Michael Van Nieuwenhuizen, (alt spelling Gualtherus Michael Van Nieuwenhuisen) was consecrated Archbishop of Utrecht February 7th, 1768 by Johannes Van Stiphout. The new Archbishop received letters of Communion from Germany, France, Italy and Spain who recognized that the claims to canonical jurisdiction of the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht were sound, and her doctrine orthodox. On 21 June, 1778, he consecrated:
246 Adrianus Johannes Broekman, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem, who on 5 July, 1797, consecrated:
247 Johannes Jacobus Van Rhijin, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 7 November, 1805, consecrated:
248 Gilbert Cornelius de Jong, (alt spelling Gilbertus de Jong) was consecrated Bishop of Deventer November 7th 1805 just after the formation of the Batavian Republic by the Emperor Napoleon I. On 24 April, 1814, Bishop de Jong consecrated:
249 Willibord Van Os, (alt spelling Willibrordus van Os) Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 22 or 25 April, 1819, consecrated:
250 Johannes Bon, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem. Bishop Bon was the first Bishop of the autocephalous Dutch succession not to be excommunicated by Rome. In 1827 the King of the Netherlands to the See of Bruges nominated him without objection from Rome. On 13 November, 1824, Bishop Bon consecrated:
251 Johannes Van Santen, Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrecht, who on 17 July, 1854, consecrated:
252 Hermanus Heijkamp, (alt spelling Hermann Johannes Heykamp) was consecrated as Bishop of Deventer on July 17, 1853 (or 1854). He later became Bishop of Utrecht in 1875. On 11 August 1873, he consecrated:
253 Casparus Johannes Rinkel, Old Catholic Bishop of Haarlem. This is the first time that the formal proofs of election were read during the Mass of Consecration rather than a Papal mandate. It is also the first time that a new Bishop of the autocephalous Dutch succession did not notify Rome of his consecration. On 11 May, 1892, Bishop Rinkel consecrated:
254 Gerard Gul (aka Gerardus Gul), was consecrated Archbishop of Utrecht May 11th, 1892. Bishop Gul consecrated Henricus Johannes Theodorus van Vlijmen and Arnold Harris Mathew. (Note: Archbishop Gerardus Gul of Utrecht, Holland, was the first of the Old Catholic Church line of succession). On 28 April, 1908, Bishop Gul consecrated:
255 Arnold Harris Mathew, Old Catholic Bishop for Great Britain, Archbishop of London, founder of "the Mathew Line". He was consecrated Regionary Old Catholic Bishop for Great Britain April 28, 1908, at St. Gertrude's Church, Utrecht by Bishop Gerardus Gul, assisted by Bishop J. J. Van Thiel of Haarlem, Bishop N. B. P. Spit of Deventer and Bishop J. Demmel of Bonn, Germany. His consecration is pictured on the right. Mathew was elected Archbishop in 1911. Archbishop Eyre, at St. Andrew’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, had ordained him to the Priesthood Glasgow in 1877. He came from distinguished Irish parents. He was the great-grandson of Francis Mathew, First Earl of Landaff, of Thomastown Castle, Tipperary. He consecrated Prince Rudolphe Francois Eduard Hamilton de Landas-Berghes, also in our lines of succession, see below "A Different Line".
256 Frederick Samuel Willoughby, Bishop of St Pancras, who on 13 February, 1916, consecrated:
257 James Ingall Wedgwood, Presiding and Founding Bishop of the Liberal Catholic Church, who on 13 July, 1919, consecrated:
258 Irving Steiger Cooper, Liberal Catholic Regionary Bishop for the United States, who on 13 September, 1931, consecrated:
259 Charles H. Hampton, assisted by Bishop Lowell Paul Wadle and Bishop H. Francis Marshall, who on 22 June, 1957, consecrated:
260 Herman Adrian Spruit, Archbishop-Patriarch of the Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, who on 23 April, 1989, consecrated:
261 Michael Daigneault, future founding Bishop of the Free Catholic Church Int'l, USA, who on 26 May, 1991 consecrated:
262 Thomas James Hickey, Free Catholic Church Int'l, USA, assisted by Bishop Michael Daigneault and Bishop Albert T. J. Heath who on 9 January, 1993 consecrated:
263 Christian Thomas B. Umberger, Free Catholic Church Int'l, Communion of the Christos and Church of Philadelphia, USA, who on 7 June, 2009 consecrated:
264 Katia Romanoff, founder Esoteric Interfaith Church and Ekklesia Epignostika, USA, who on 31 March, 2012 consecrated:
265 James L. Parris, Ekklesia Epignostika, USA
A Different Line of Old Catholic Succession
Bishop Thomas SARGENT of the Community of Catholic Churches, A co-consecrator of Thomas James HICKEY in 1991, joined the Free Catholic Church as one of its bishops. Bishop Sargent brought a different line of Old Catholic succession, one which does not pass through the Liberal Catholic (Wedgwood) succession. In addition, his line includes the Protestant Episcopal succession.
Both lines come through Bishop William Montgomery BROWN [Pictured Right]. Brown was originally consecrated in the Episcopal Church (1898) and was later consecrated sub conditione in the Old Catholic succession (1925) when he chose to transfer his allegiance. +Katia inserts: ...while awaiting the verdict of his deposing as an Episcopal bishop for heretical teachings, among which was communism and Marxism! According to Bishop Brown's obituary in 1937, he was "the first Bishop of his communion to be tried for heresy since the Reformation, and the first of any creed in America to be disposed for heretical teachings." In his later years he became quite an eccentric, but not a heretic, said Time Magazine in their 1925 article entitled The Skinning of Bishop Brown. And here's the Wikipedia article on Bishop Brown. Despite his supposedly heretical beliefs in later life, Brown was a duly consecrated Anglican/Episcopalian bishop and later an Old Catholic Bishop. These two lines entered our succession through Bishop Sargent and all those upon whom he laid hands.
SUCCESSION of Sargent
I. Protestant Anglican Episcopal
William Edward McLAREN (1875) who consecrated
II. Old Catholic
Gerard GUL (1892) who consecrated
Another Short Additional Line, or rather Loop
Prince Rudolphe Francois Edouard Hamilton, Grand Duke of Lorraine-Brabant, Prince de LANDAS-BERGHES et de Roche and Duke de St. Winnock, Archbishop of the Old Roman Catholic Church, on October 3,1916, consecrated William Henry Francis Brothers, who, with co-consecrator Henry Carmel Carfora on August 25, 1935 consecrated Albert Dunstan Bell.
Albert Dunstan BELL was consecrated on August 25, 1935 and consecrated Edgar Ramon Verostek.
Edgar Ramon VEROSTEK was consecrated on March 9, 1940 and with Kleefisch (see Russian Orthodox lines) consecrated Charles H. Hampton.
Charles H. HAMPTON was consecrated on September 13th 1931. Assisted by Bishop Lowell Paul Wadle and Bishop H. Francis Marshall, consecrated:
Herman Adrian SPRUIT on June 22, 1957.
1 Peter, 38 A.D.;
126 Mar Ignatius Peter III, 1872. "Peter the Humble"
127 Paulose Mar Athanasius (Kadavil Kooran) was consecrated on December 4, 1907 by Mar Ignatius Peter III as Syrian Antioch Bishop of Kottayam and Metropolitan of Malabar (India).
128 Mar Julius I (Antonio Francis Xavier Alvares) was consecrated July 28, 1889, by Paulose Mar Athanasius, under authority of Patriarch Ignatius Peter III to be Archbishop of the Latin Rite Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India.
129 Joseph Rene Vilatte was consecrated on May 29, 1892 in Columba, Ceylon at Our Lady of Good Death Cathedral by Mar Julius I, under authority of a Bull of Mar Ignatius Peter III, to serve as Archbishop of North America.
130 Frederick E. Lloyd, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1915
131 Samuel Gregory Lines, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1923
132 Justin Boyle aka Archbishop Robert Raleigh, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1927
133 Lowell Paul Wadle, American Catholic Church, USA, was consecrated in 1940
134 Herman Adrian Spruit, Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite, USA, was consecrated in 1957
135 Michael Daigneault, future founding Bishop of the Free Catholic Church Int'l, USA, was consecrated in 1989
136 Thomas James Hickey, Free Catholic Church Int'l, USA, was consecrated in 1991
137 Christian Thomas Umberger, Free Catholic Church Int'l, USA, future founding Bishop of Church of Philadelphia, USA, was consecrated in 1993
138 Katia Romanoff, founder Esoteric Interfaith Church & Ekklesia Epignostika, USA, was consecrated in 2009
Bishop Herman Adrian Spruit's History:
Bringing the Lines of Apostolic Succession Together
In 1944-45 a series of Codicils and Concordats led to the formation of the Federation of Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops. The first of these united the major lines of Archbishop Lowell Paul Wadle (American Catholic Church, +Rene Vilatte succession), Patriarch Anthony Aneed (Byzantine Catholic Church, Greek Melchite succession) and Bishop Edgar Ramon Verostek (Bishop Commissary for the American Old Roman Catholic Church).
The Old Catholic lineage is derived from those Roman bishops who declined to approve the decree by the Roman pontiff declaring himself infallible (Council of Utrecht - 1870).
In 1945 the first codicil to the American Concordat was made adding the lines of Bishop Charles Hampton (Regionary Bishop, Liberal Catholic Church, USA) and Archbishop Henry Joseph Kleefisch, (Byzantine Universal Orthodox Church) who held the Primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church. (Agreements among these strands insured untainted lines of primacy for any future consecrations of bishops.)
In 1957 Herman Adrian Spruit [Pictured Right] was consecrated a bishop for the first Church Universal by Bishops Charles Hampton, Archbishop Lowell Paul Wadle and Bishop H. Francis Marshall. Upon the death of Archbishop Kleefisch, in 1955, his primacy was bequeathed to Archbishop-Patriarch Anthony Aneed.
Archbishop Herman Spruit became the President of the Federation of Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops.
On June 27, 1965 Archbishop Robert Raleigh (Boyle) and Archbishop Herman Spruit imposed hands on one other in a specific sub-conditione ceremony for the purpose of uniting their respective jurisdictions. Archbishop Robert Raleigh retired in 1965 shortly after naming Archbishop Herman A. Spruit his successor.
Upon the death of Patriarch Anthony Aneed in 1970, the primacy of the Byzantine Orthodox Catholic Church also passed to Archbishop Herman A. Spruit. Within this jurisdiction were two major primacies: +Aneed's which included the Greek Melchite lineage and +Kleefisch, which included the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church. Since Patriarch Aneed was enthroned Patriarch in 1946 the title of Patriarch then passed to +Spruit by the last will and testament of +Anthony Aneed.
OTHER APOSTOLIC LINEAGES WE INHERIT via Herman A. Spruit (Partial Detail)
3. Armenian Uniate: Chorchurian - Chechamian - Crow - Newman - Maxey - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
4. Syro-Chaldean: St. Thomas - Shimun XVIII - Antony - Bartlett - Newman - Maxey - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
5. Anglican, Celtic origin: Moore - White - Hopkins - Chechemian - Crow - Newman - Maxey - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
6. American Greek Melchite: Cyril VI - Savoya - Aneed - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff [Note: Spruit was appointed Patriarch of the Byzantine Orthodox Catholic Church by Bishop Aneed, whom he succeeded in that position.]
7. Orthodox Patriarchate: (Constantinople) - Sergius - Kleefish - Aneed - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
8. Russian Orthodox: Nikon - Makarius - Ortinsky - Kleefish - Aneed - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
9. Non Juring Bishops of Scotland: Montaigne - Seabury - Richardson - Newman - Maxey - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
10. Syrian-Malabar: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh aka Boyle - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
11. Syrian-Gallican: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh aka Boyle - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
12. Coptic: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
13. Coptic Uniate: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
14. Anglican, Non-Celtic: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
15. Irish: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
16. Welsh: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
17. Mariavite: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
18. Old Greek Melchite (Byzantine): Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
19. Old Armenian: Alvares - Vilatte - Miraglia - Lloyd - Lines - Raleigh - Wadle - Spruit - Daigneault - Hickey - Umberger - Romanoff
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